A Systematic Comparison of Rules and Their Effect on Digital Fragmentation
This report provides a systematic comparison of domestic data governance regulation across the G20 members. It covers rules on data protection, cross-border data flows, and data localisation. The analysis focuses on heterogeneity between domestic regimes, implied fragmentation risk, and international cooperation initiatives.
Johannes Fritz, Tommaso Giardini
07 Nov 2023
When data rules diverge, digital trade suffers. Diverging data regulations hamper digital trade. This report analyses differences in G20 members' data governance rules across 45 dimensions.
Main findings include:
Suggested policy priorities:
The first part of this report provides an in-depth comparative analysis of regulatory approaches to data governance across the G20 members. Along 45 dimensions, it compares regulations on data processing, data flows including localisation and transfers, as well as sanctions. This systematic comparison aims to pinpoint areas of regulatory heterogeneity that may hinder digital trade.
The report's second part then summarises the state of data governance rules in each individual G20 member. It provides an overview of major policy developments and enforcement highlights to deliver rich context. In addition, these summaries cover secondary legislation and country-specific regulations that go beyond the systematically compared 45 dimensions.